There are various techniques of teaching which may be spelled out as follows:
Questionnaires followed by analytical persuasion:
There is no denying the fact that Questioning is an important ingredient of everyday communication which accelerates teaching very qualitative and answerable. Education based questions are poles apart from everyday questions. The underlying principles of creative question are as follows:
· To achieve unknown thing from the learner's participation in class
· To determine the dimension of knowledge what the learner knows about the topics.
· To highlight attention of the learner.
· To lead discussions among the participants with relevant idea, feelings and persuasions.
· To review and recap the relevant in order to make subject matter more intensive and clear.
· To kindle philosophy about the topics more profoundly with deep seated manner.
· To check the learner's comprehension of topics roofed in the class.
The Questioning procedure may be applied in the following manner.
· To ask a question first to draw attention of the teachers and other participants in a congenial atmosphere of teaching
· The participant would ask question with general courtesy and definitive pause
· To call on one learner by name, if the system of communication starts as per familiarization and acquaintances as a rule
· The teacher should listen to the answer and try to focus the drawbacks very tactfully and mildly.
To emphasize the exact answer to the question this has been reflected in the class.
The teacher should be well conversant on the topics to be discussed in the class with meaningful learning experience with which a model of teaching will be developed in the class. In this context, Bloom's taxonomy of questions may be classified as follows:
· Knowledge: It is virtue in the sense all the qualities of goodness flourish by dint of acquiring knowledge.
· Comprehension: It means clear understanding which focuses a learner to be more intimated with the topics he is entrusted to solve, create and deepen the theme analytically to learn virtually.
· Application: He can seek answers more analytically with which his wide spread knowing persuasion can be fulfilled
· Analysis: It is a critical means of focusing the unknown things by cultivation the intensive study of the relevant topics.
· Synthesis: it means creativeness which come from the inquisitiveness feeling of the students.
· Evaluation: it is a check on trial and error basis with which a student can improve in course of time.
2. Erudition indenture:
Learning contract is a method that is used to individualize the learning process. A learning contract is a formal agreement written by a learner which details what will be learnt, how the learning will be accomplished, the time period involved and the specific evaluation criteria used in judging the completion of learning.
Two types of learning contracts: learner constructs entire contract and learner constructs most or part of contract.. A learning contract comprises five parts:
· Learning goal
· Learning wherewithal and approach
· objective date of achievement
· verification of success
· assessment of the erudition
Lecture is a justifiable instructional system for use by adult tutoring practitioners.
Lecture can be used when the rationale is to:
· At hand information is vitally important in an organized way within an specified time framework
· To provide a framework for Present information in an organized way within a structured time frame.
· To provide a framework for learning activities and further course of study which need to be followed tentatively
· To Identify, explain and clarify difficult concepts, problems or ideas.
· To highlight the critique of topics under a controversial issue
· To demonstrate relationship for proper integration between previously learned and newly informed criteria of teaching.
· Model a creative mind at work, an expert's thought process as thew lecturer thinks out loud.
· To challenge beliefs, attitudes and behaviors of the learners
· To accelerate a Stimulus or inspired mood among the students for further development of the study..
Feed back of the lecture procedure:
The material may be presented in a clear, precise, and orderly format and it is a well-known and acceptable method. It should be useful for participants who will not or cannot use printed materials. It may be used in large groups and it provides for face-to-face contact with a talking, gesturing, and feeling human beings. It is often easier for participants to listen than to read. The speaker can use the lecture to stimulate and motivate the audience to further study and inquiry.
Process of delivery in respect of the lecture can be explained as follows:
· To plan for a teaching environment
· To standardize the limit of in sequence
· To verbalize clearly, loudly enough, and at pace appropriate for the learner group.
· To use a conversational rather than pedantic, authoritative tone.
· To look at people and their activities to behave
· To Keep moving, but one should don't overdo anything
· To complement the lecture with other instructional methods
The teacher should have a special look on the anatomy of a lecture which tentatively envisages the following:
· To say a lot about a little
· To use a lot of examples to explain the topics
· To Keep moving and continue further until or unless the queries stop.
· To recapitulate on variety of enquiries that eventually may happen
In view of the above criteria of teaching quality, the most impelling cognitive purposes for which discussion should be used are: To expose learners to a diversity of perspectives on issue, topic or theme. To help learners to externalize the assumptions underlying their values, beliefs, and actions. To assist learners in perspective taking, i.e. in coming to see the world as others see it. To introduce learners to elements of complexity and ambiguity in an issue, topic, or theme. In preparing discussion materials, the steps of discussion which are important may be replicated as follows:
· Argumentative Themes
· Resource Materials
· Consensual Rules
· Personalizing Discussion Topics
· The Group's Composition
· Facilitating Discussion
In regard to facilitate discussion: one should knowledge on the following criteria:
· To be conversant with standardized approaches
· To use a diversity of approaches
· To congregate the unanticipated.
· To attend to the emotional dimension
· To be authentic in the group.
The Mentor approach was first explored as the embodiment of wisdom and guardian of young Telemachus in the Odyssey. In recent years they wedged the public imagination in Gail Sheehy's Passages (1979). There is now even an international association of mentors and a journal.
Mentors support their students:
· To call out the inner voice
· To provide apposite structure
· To express positive expectations
· To advocate and explain
Mentors can challenge their students by focusing the following aspects of learning.:
· By assigning relevant tasks to motivate the students/participants to learn
· By providing an alternative voice so that the students become curious to learn.
· By helping students to identify their assumptions how far they have learnt the topics as assigned
· By encouraging hypothetical thinking on the jobs either practical or theoretical
· By providing specific positive feedback depending on both from participants and the teachers.
· By offering a map to widen the spirit of knowledge about the geography, history, culture and heritage of a particular place.
· By keeping a definitive and virtual tradition for analytical survey assignment.
· By suggest a separate forum of suggestions obtained from a definitive project work
A superlative teacher desires to be well conversant about using the language very appropriate to the children. It is obligatory to create awareness and congenial atmosphere on the part of a teacher. In order to widen lecture, group debate is a vital obsession. As a teacher, we have to make certain that group presentation is effectual. In respect of the qualities of a good teacher, he or she must decide on any method to educate the students but according to Franchise Bacon, most of the good teachers opt for the sixth Rule of teaching that is ' Repeat, Recap, Review ' which is the nearly all noteworthy one to make the teaching fundamentally proficient, earth-shattering, prolific and up to the mark
The reasons in support of the argument are stated as follows.
(a) Repeat: According to Franchise Bacon, 'when you notify something in the class to a group of students, it is only a motto but when you summarize it, reiterate it and ask the question on the steps forward, it will be interacted and if you further emphasize the concept, they will be conversant with the relevant knowledge'. Indeed, incase of delivering an important message, if it is stated once-only 10% will be memorized but if it is stated 6 times then 90% are memorized after one year. So, reiteration/repetition is the most important tools for the teaching to make the topics memorable. If the message is not remembered and comprehensible then the whole thing will be treated as useless.
(b) Recap: It is by and large meant by recap to go over again the imperative point of the relevant contents. Using FULLE-R and VHF for better memorization can do the recap. As the first events are best memorized so to start with big message. Thereafter unusual event like cartoon, exercise etc. be used. Thirdly, linked event, here mnemonics or analogy can be used and lastly to end with big messages of fascination towards the topics. In this context, summing up the ideas to arrive the conclusion that is the gist in question to be communicated to the students as a good communicator of the teaching course. We should remember one thing that ' Telling is not teaching; we need to make teaching active and interesting; get students involved; see it from the student's view; we should use VHF and FULL-R. According to Comoneus, an eminent educationist, for an successful teaching, 'only lecture is irrelevant but in order to adorn it for better memorization, ideal approach, manifestation, visual display and varieties of attractions of the students are considered necessary.
Review: A proverb always goes like ' To err is human'. It is human temperament to put out of our mind the things/message, which is not reviewed that are we losing what we don't review. To review we are to regularly sum up where we have reached and invited questions. At the end of every topics if the teacher repeats, recap and review, ask questions and help them to answer properly, the students will be more motivated and conversant with the subjects and grasp it properly so that teaching will be effective and fruitful. That is to say, a teacher's behavior will be in such, which must attract the students for effective and efficient teaching. Hence it is widely recognized that apropos to the teaching method, the following are important to apply in teaching the students virtually.
1. Telling is not teaching
2. Age is not a bar to learn
3. Meaningful learning experience
4. Voice, image and body use
5. Practical Orientation
6. Repeat, Recap and Review
In conveying lecture, there are boundaries, which may create impediment to learning on the part of the students. Sometimes the lecture may be seamy and tedious due to non-stop saying. If there is waterlessness amongst the students, the teacher should modify the policy of his lecture. He should ask open-ended questions. Open ended question help get students drawn in. Assuming to know a scrupulous thing, one may get fascinated if he is intended to know those fastidious items. An ideal teacher needs to be well clued-up about using the language. It is indispensable to create wakefulness and agreeable atmosphere on the part of a teacher. Or else, we have to live in the midst of dissatisfaction and unauthorized activities where there will be no light of education as a symbol of blaze illumination and peace and prosperity of life. In this context, William Shakespeare says:
"Out! Out! A brief candle,
A life's but a walking shadow,
A poor player!
That struts and frets his hour
Upon the stage!
And then is heard no more,
It is a tale;
Told by an idiot,
It is full of sound and fury;